In April, the Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP) published a resolution (nº 21/2014) related to hydraulic fracturing activities in unconventional reservoirs. The regulatory was imposed in face of the necessity of establishing essential requirements and operational security and environment preservation standards in the country.
Hydraulic fracturing is a well stimulation technique that enhances well productivity by creating a higher conductivity path (fracture) from the reservoir to the wellbore. Part of EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) techniques. Hydraulic Fracturing, or Fracking, has been a part of SimWorx’ portfolio since Propag development (CENPES/Petrobras), focused in water injection and fracture propagation. This simulator evaluates injector wells injectivity drops through time, as well as fracture evolution (height / length / width) through time.
Unconventional reservoirs – shale gas and tight oil:
Unconventional reservoirs are characterized for its very low permeability. Unconventional gas exploration is the key to the North American energetic revolution, the famous “Shale Revolution” (http://www.spe.org/jpt/m/article/3483-comments-11) as well as the REPSOL / YPF litigation focused on Argentina’s “Vaca Muerta” formation (http://www.spe.org/jpt/article/6053-comments-22/), and other promising regions (Figure).
Recently in Brazil, a 72 blocks containing either natural gas or unconventional gas went into auction in the 12th Bidding Round (end of 2013). Gas production in unconventional reservoirs is even more challenging and, therefore, demands specifics mathematic modelling development for these scenarios.
In Brazil, the market is signaling the strategic engagement from the operators’ part in exploring non conventional reservoirs. SimWorx is already involved on the development of a 3D gas flow simulator that will address these scenarios.